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CASE REPORTS
Treatment of Tūkkamiṉmai (Insomnia) Through Siddha Yoga Practice Tirumūlar Piraṇāyāmam: A Case Report
Joshil , S Merish, AS Poongodi Kanthimathi
Jan-Jun 2019, 2(3):3-9
Introduction: Tūkkamiṉmai (insomnia) is an emerging factor in this current scenario among adults. In India, sleeplessness is more prevalent among adolescent age group population because of modified life styles activities. 29 years old female visited the Department of Siddhar Yoga Maruthuvam of Government Siddha medical college with complaints of sleeplessness (Tūkkamiṉmai) over the period of past 3 months. Methodology: Her pulse (Nāţiparicōtaṉai) was predominating in Pitta vātam. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness scale has been used as a standard tool to measure the status of sleep and sleepiness status respectively. Diagnosed as Tūkkamiṉmai (insomnia) and provided Siddhar Tirumūlar Piraṇāyāmamas recommended by Siddha text Siddhar Sirappu Maruthuvam. Results: On seventh day of practicing of Tirumūlar Piraṇāyāmam, her sleep got to normal without any disturbances and followed the case of 3 weeks. After starting the intervention, she got a good sleep from the 1st week itself. In follow-up, the quality of sleep and sleepiness stage improved well in the 3rd week. The Sleep Quality Scale and Sleepiness Measurement Questionnaire was used before and after the practice of Tirumūlar Piraṇāyāmamfor sleeplessness. Conclusion: This study provides us a lead to initiatelarge-scalestudies (case series, observational studies, RCTCs etc) for sleep regulation with Yoga. The Siddha Tirumūlar Piraṇāyāmam practice could make a definite impact on sleep regulation centers and neuronal systems over the body. Through holistic care, Siddha Yogam along with proper clinical history, clinical diagnosis, the emerging sleep disturbances and rehabilitation from electronic syndromes are not a height for the Siddhar Yoga Maruttuvam.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Viral induced Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (PARDS) and Siddha Herbs: A Narrative Review
G Kiruthiga, Eugene Wilson, P Sathiyarajeswaran, K Kanakavalli
Jan-Jun 2020, 3(3):8-18
Introduction: Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (PARDS) with acute pulmonary inflammation is one of the leading causes of death within pediatric intensive care unit. Although the mortality rate has reduced with the advent of lung protective ventilation and Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO), no specific effective pharmacological treatment is available. This study aims to explore and substantiate the anti-viral potential of Siddha herbs for PARDS. Methods: Thorough survey of research studies from electronic databases and literature analysis of the Siddha texts was performed. The Symptomatology of acute respiratory distress syndrome is comparable to Vichinna Swasam described in Siddha pathology. Results: The viral induced primary pneumonia, the predominant cause of PARDS, could be managed by the use of anti-viral Siddha herbs, known to have inhibitive effects on the cytokine storm in viral progressive states. Various experimental studies that analyze the anti-inflammatory activity of Siddha herbs and their mechanism of action in attenuation or reversal of the acute lung injury caused by pro- inflammatory mediators have been tabulated. Conclusion: The consolidation of experiment knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of Siddha plants-based drugs can offer a novel platform for development of integrated anti-viral treatment modules for treating PARDS.
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Potential Pharmacological Basis of Zinc Based Siddha Formulations for Handling COVID like Illness - An Overview
S Vinayak, Eugene Wilson, R Gayatri, P Sathiyarajeswaran, Shyamala Rajkumar, S Selvarajan, K Kanakavalli
Jan-Jun 2020, 3(3):19-27
Introduction: In the wake of dreadful pandemics affecting the global population, there is much focus on traditional medical systems. Siddha medicine advocates the use of plain herbal therapy, mineral therapy or its combination in managing diseases of epidemic nature. Zinc based Siddha formulations are widely gaining popularity in Medical practices due to its multidimensional applicability in numerous disease conditions. In Siddha system, there is still limited knowledge on its usage in communicable diseases. This study was aimed at critically appraising various scientific literatures concerned with the pharmacological aspects of zinc in terms of its immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antiviral properties so that rationality of its use in managing COVID-19 like epidemic illness can be substantiated. Results: There is much evidence in the scientific field that proves the choice of zinc formulations for treating various infections particularly of viral origin. Traditionally, zinc metal has been promoted in Siddha medicine as a wonder element to treat sexually transmitted diseases associated with immune compromised status. Naga Parpam (NP), the zinc based nano dosage form in Siddha medicine is acclaimed for its indicative role in treating respiratory affections with or without infectious background. The main compound of NP, zinc oxide (ZnO) exists in nano range, decides the therapeutic outcome of the drug owing to its fine biocompatibility and targeted action in cellular levels without resulting in any toxicity. The mechanism which the zinc ions act in response to any pathogenic assaults of viral origin includes direct competitive inhibition of important cellular target receptors of the virion, stimulation of local host immune responses and many other systematic cellular responses like oxidant radical scavenging. Conclusion: The review justifies the motive of introducing zinc based Siddha formulations like NP as one of the front-line choices for preventing COVID-19 like epidemics for further validation through preventive clinical trials.
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Metal - based Nanoparticle Siddha Formulations for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs)
K Samraj, K Nandhagopal, S Thillaivanan, A Silambarasan
Jan-Jun 2020, 3(3):28-33
Background: Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) are infections are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range; includes previously unrecognized diseases such as AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), ebola-haemorrhagic fever, nipah virus encephalitis, dengue fever and recent COVID-19 pandemic. Most pathogens involved in EID events are drug-resistant bacteria (54.3%), but virus constitute only 25.4% of EID events, in contrast to previous analyses which suggest that 37–44% of emerging pathogens are viruses and 10–30% bacteria. Metal-based nanoparticles accounts for their considerable interaction with bio molecules within the cell and on the cell surface. These unique properties make metal nanoparticles potential therapeutics for the treatment of infectious diseases Method: In Siddha system of medicine, Ulogankal (metals) are eleven in numbers; they are Thangam (gold), Velli (silver), Sembu (copper), Naagam (zinc), Ehgu (steel), Irumbu (iron), Pithalai (brass), Thara (alloy of copper and lead), Karuvangam (lead) and Velvangam (tin). This review focuses about the antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and immunomodulatory activities of metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) which were already quoted in the Siddha system of medicine. Result: Metal nanoparticles have sufficient physico-chemical properties and surface charges. This review revealed that the metal-based medicines have considerable potential to manage and to provide prophylactic support to the EIDs due to immune enhancing, anti-viral, antibacterial, anti-microbial properties. Conclusion: Nanoparticles utilization is “double-edged sword” providing positive advantages for usefulness and negative impacts on health upon exposure. So, the manufacture authentications, Specific guidelines for metal drugs handling for clinical practice, Novel Drug Delivery System (NDDS), research rationales are essential for the metal based Siddha Medicines (Parpam, Chenduram and Chunnam) in this infection emerging period.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Views of Agathiyar, Bogar, Pulathiyar and Thirumoolar about Ashtanga Yogam
Binthuja G Dharan
Jan-Jun 2019, 2(3):49-52
The body, which is the temple of the spirit is not an eternal one. However, the spirit and the mind can be made one through the practice of Yogam. Ashtanga Yogam or the Eight Limbs of yoga serve as the base for the proper practice of Yogam. The most commonly practiced yoga being the ‘Patanjali Yoga’, there were several other Siddhars who have made massive contributions in the field of Ashtanga Yoga. This article aims at throwing light on the concepts made by the various Siddhars on Yoga.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Herbal Remedies from Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Plants Conserved at Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (CCRS), Mettur Dam, Salem District, Tamil Nadu
M Manokari, M Padma Sorna Subramanian
July-December 2019, 2(2):16-29
Introduction: This paper reports on aquatic/semi-aquatic plants from the Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (SMPG),Mettur Dam, Salem district of Tamil Nadu, which are used to cure various diseases in Siddha system of medicine. Materials and Methods: In the present review, information on Siddha formulations of the plants and medicinal properties along with their taxonomy, habit and habitat were presented by citing authentic publications. Results: Thirty-three aquatic/semi-aquatic plant species used in herbal remedies are being presented in this paper along with their description, medicinal uses as single drug or in combination. At SMPG, aquatic, semi-aquatic and marshy plants are being maintained at model herbal gardens I and II, petaloid pond, poly green house and arboretum. Among these aquatic species, some plants are sold in the market and directly used by the AYUSH practitioners due to their medicinal values, viz., Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC (Ponnankanni), Bacopa monnieri Penn. (Brahmi), Centella asiatica(L.)Urban (Vallarai), Eclipta prostrate L. (Vellaikarisalai), Phyla nodiflora Greene. (Poduthalai), Sphagneticola calendulacea (L.) Pruski (Manjalkarisalai), Spilanthes acmella DC. (Palvalipoondu) etc. Some of the species were explored enormously and their formulated herbal products are available in the global market. Conclusion: Aquatic plants have been widely used in traditional medicine with a long Indian history. They are reputed for treating a number of ailments. Thus far, many studies are significant in aquatic plants but limited to the level of clinical uses, conservation and cultivation.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Review on constituents and activity of Siddha Herbal Formulation Ammaiyar Koondhal Kudineer (AKK) against SARS CoV-2
K Arunachalam, K Rajamaheswari, K Samraj
Jan-Jun 2020, 3(3):3-7
Introduction: COVID-19 is the current most affecting pandemic disease more than 200 countries. The rapid transmission of corona viral disease is a challenging and invention of an effective drug for its management is the need of the hour. Antiviral drugs, anti-pyretic drugs and immunomodulators are commonly used for the management of SARS CoV-2 infection in Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM). Siddha system of medicine which was indicated since ancient times to treat respiratory illnesses like cough, cold, dyspnoea may possibly have a significant effectiveness on prophylactic and symptomatic management. Ammaiyar Koondhal Kudineer (AKK) is a classical Siddha formulation, which was formulated by sage Therar for the management of vishakaichal (fever). This drug was taken into consideration to explore its antiviral effects. So, an attempt was made to explore the antiviral nature of AKK. The herbals formulated in this Siddha drug such as Cuscuta reflexa, Hemidesmus indicus, Evolvulus alsinoides etc., have pharmacologically proven antiviral properties. Conclusion: This review on its antiviral therapeutic value of AKK helped to bring a new insight to the management of COVID-19. Further preclinical and clinical evaluation will be helpful in ensuring more therapeutic benefits of AKK.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Hypoglycemic Effect of Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa L.) on Type 2 Diabetes
M Ragavi, P Muthumeenakshi
July-December 2019, 2(2):42-48
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of black cumin seeds on the blood glucose level (both fasting and postprandial) of subjects with type 2 diabetes. METHOD: The experimental study includes fifteen individuals with type 2 diabetes aged between 45 – 65years. The subjects were supplemented with 2g Nigella sativa seed powder for a period of 45 days. The blood glucose (both fasting and postprandial) levels of the subjects were assessed on 0th day, 30th day and 45th day of supplementation. RESULT: The fasting and postprandial blood glucose level on 0th day, 30th day and 45th day were compared. There was a significant reduction in fasting and postprandial blood glucose level between 0th day and 30th day and 0th day and 45th day. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of Nigella sativa commonly known as black cumin seeds resulted in a reduction in the blood glucose level (both fasting and post prandial) at 30th day and 45th day. Hence Nigella sativa can be used as an adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes.
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Proximal and Phytochemical Analysis of Wild Jack Fruit Seeds (Artocarpus hirsutus Lam.), Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Microbial Properties and Formulation of Food Products
K Krishnapriya, K Kanjana
July-December 2019, 2(2):30-35
BACKGROUND: The present study aims at evaluating the proximal principles, phytochemicals, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial activity of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. (Wild jackfruit) seeds thereafter incorporating the seed powder in food. Negligible studies have been conducted to identify the health benefits of A. hirsutus seeds. Hence, an attempt has been made to explore the active principles in the A. hirsutes seeds. METHODS: The seed powder was extracted using three different solvent extracts viz., methanol, di-ethyl ether and water. The extracts were analysed for phytochemicals (qualitative), proximate principles, anti-bacterial (Salmonella typhi, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebseilla pneumonia) and anti-fungal (Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger) properties using agar well diffusion method and anti-diabetic properties using α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor activity. Food formulation was done by incorporating the seed powder in traditional foods followed by organoleptic evaluation. RESULTS: The study revealed the presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, sterols and quinine in different solvents and contains greater amounts of carbohydrates and proteins. The study shows the highest anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichoderma viridae. The seeds contain potent anti-diabetic activity. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that Artocarpus hirsutus seeds are nutritionally enriched and prevents food borne pathogens. The seeds reveal excellent anti-diabetic properties. The seeds are not consumed frequently due to the lack of information on its health benefits. Therefore, the seeds can be incorporated in traditional foods to improve the nutritional quality and enhance the importance of traditional medicines and foods.
  86 5 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer – Siddha Perspective
GS Lekha, S Aparna, N Kasirajan, A Kanagarajan
July-December 2018, 1(1):3-14
Background: Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide and the burden is increasing day by day. This dreadful disease existed in our society from time immemorial and the way of management including therapeutic aspects has been widely described in classical siddha texts. The rationale of this paper is to highlight the clinical features, pathology, diagnosis and therapeutic management of various types of Cancers mentioned in siddha literature. Methods: The literature review on the aetiology, pathology, clinical features and therapeutic aspects of ‘Cancer like illnesses’ mentioned in Siddha system in the form of condensed poems is expressed in this Manuscript. The descriptive aspects of Cancer have resemblance with the clinical entities of Vippuruthinoipadalam (Carcinoma like illness), Mega Katti, Kandamaalai Rogapadalam (Lymphoma like illness), Kiranthinoigal, Pilavaiand Putrunoi(tumour)revealed in Siddha Literatures. This paper explicates the review of literature on herbal drugs indicated for cancer related ailments and the pre-clinical study review of Siddha formulations. Results: The formulations in Siddha system are deemed to work on multiple biochemical pathways and are capable of influencing several organ systems simultaneously; most of the Siddha medicines provide nutrition and reduce the side effects of conventional cancer therapy due to effective antioxidant activity. Conclusion: This review manuscript strongly emphasize that the ancient literatures are scientifically driven one and not simply unconventional.
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EDITORIAL
Proactive Steps by the Ministry of AYUSH in mitigating COVID-19: An update on contribution of Siddha
K Kanakavalli
Jan-Jun 2020, 3(3):1-2
  80 7 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Human hibernation and Samadhi Niai of Cittar Attanga Yogam - A literature review
M Harihara Mahadevan, KP Vanmathi, C Eswaran
Jan-Jun 2019, 2(3):53-57
Attangayogam explained in Gnana noolgal (Philosophical texts) of Cittarkal are unexplored by scientific community as there is a common opinion that they deal only with spirituality and philosophy. The basic philosophy behind Siddha medicine and Siddha pharmacological preparations roots from the philosophies mentioned in Gnana noolgal. As these philosophies were framed by observing nature and interpretation of science behind the natural phenomenon. Immortality and longevity were the main goals of Cittarkal in their way to achieve the aim of Attama Citti. Gnana noolgal discuss in detail about the Attanga Yogam practices which are the main tools to attain immortality. The Samadhi nilai mentioned in Cittar texts (Gnana noolgal) mimics hibernation of mammals. This review focuses on comparing ‘Samadhi Nilai’ of Attangayogam with hibernation of mammals.
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A Review on Pharmacological Approach of the Therapeutic Property of Madhuca longifolia (J.Koenig ex L.) J. f. Macbr. Flower
A Bibha Mishra, T Usha
July-December 2019, 2(2):3-10
Liver plays an important role in maintaining the metabolic function and excretion of toxins from the body. An injury or liver dysfunction caused by consumption of toxic chemicals, excessive alcohol and microbes result in a challenging condition called hepatotoxicity. Madhuca longifolia belonging to Sapotaceae family is found to possess pharmacological properties in the treatment of various diseases. The present review aims at compiling the hepatoprotective effect of Mahua flower based on various experimental studies. Methanolic extract of Mahua flower exhibited hepatoprotective property when administered at different dosages in rat was found to lower the levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and total bilirubin simultaneously increasing serum total proteins and albumin. The ethanolic extract also showed hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats when administered in dosage of 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight by stimulating the healing and regeneration of hepatocytes. Hepatoprotective activity might be due to the effect of extractsagainst the cellular leakage and loss of function of the cell membrane in hepatocytes. The protective effect might be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and phenolics. Future prospects include purification and characterization of phyto-compounds present in the Madhucalongifolia flower. Further studies on mechanism of action will lead to discovery of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment hepatic diseases.
  80 6 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Changes of Vaginal pH With Vengaaraneer Douche in Kabayonirogam (Vulvovaginal Candidiasis)
S Bharathi, S Sushmitha, SM Chithra, N Anbu
July-December 2019, 2(2):49-53
BACKGROUND: Kabayonirogam which is symptomatically similar with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common vaginal infections in women. Despite advances in antifungal therapies in conventional management, there is a need for affordable alternative health care, particularly in case of recurrent VVC. Mechanisms by which asymptomatic colonization converts to symptomatic disease and recurrences were studied elaborately by many authors. The ability of switching between yeast and hyphae in response to environmental cues particularly pH changes is thought to be associated with virulence. This study investigates the effect of changes in pH by treatment with Vengaaraneer douche in VVC patients. The aim of the current study is to monitor the changes in pH before and after application of vengaaraneer douche in VVC patients. METHODS: Ten positive VVC patients were enrolled for study. Vaginal swabs were collected for the presence of candida albicans in microbiology department by using Gram’s staining, and to evaluate the pH. RESULTS: The results were statistically evaluated by paired t test, SPSS software. CONCLUSION: The morphological transition necessary for the virulence of Candida albicansis more in the neutral and alkaline pH. As per results there is high significance of vengaaraneer douching influencing the pH of the vaginal environment by reducing the pH which may reduce virulence as the transition is dependent on the ability of the candida albicans to change the pH. This is only a pilot study; more detailed study is required to establish the effect of vengaaraneer on pH modulation.
  82 3 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Varmam Therapy in Management of Peenisam (Sinusitis) - A Review
C Eswaran, KP Vanmathi, M Harihara Mahadevan, R Thilagavathi
July-December 2019, 2(2):11-15
Varmam treatment is one of the unique external manipulation therapies in Siddha system.Varmam is the science which deals with the study of certain vital energy points in the body through which Pranan[life energy] flows normally. It gets blocked in case of any injury to the Varmam points and also in diseased condition. By stimulating these vital energy points in the affected area using fingersblocked,energy gets relieved and regains its normal flow in the body. Peenisam is the term mentioned in Siddha literature that can be correlated with Sinusitis in Modern science. Siddha system of medicine identifies trauma and associated injury in particular Varmam points of body as one of the causes of Peenisam[Sinusitis]. Injuries on Varmam points that cause Peenisam[Sinusitis], Varmam ilakkumuraigal[Therapy] specified for Peenisam [Sinusitis],Internal medicines in various Siddha Varmam literatures are discussed in this review.
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CASE REPORTS
Management of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) by Yoga and Siddha intervention - A case study
R Thilagavathi
Jan-Jun 2019, 2(3):10-13
Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder among women in reproductive age. PCOS often develop around the time of first menstrual period during puberty. PCOS, a multisystem disease, is a major reason for female infertility around the world. Menstrual irregularity and the evidences of hyperandrogenism are the characteristics features of PCOS. A 23-year-old female with complaints of irregular menstruation, severe acne in the face visited Siddha Clinical Research Unit, Bengaluru in January 2018.History revealed that she was suffering from PCOS since 2010 and she was under allopathic treatment since then. She was subjected to Ultrasonogram (USG)- abdomen once in 6 monthsduring allopathy treatment, results showed no remarkable changes in USG – abdomen and PCOS persists. The patient was treated with Siddha medicines –Elathy chooranam, Arumuga chenduram along with Yoga (Salabhasanam, Pranayamam) for 30 minutes twice a day. There was a notable difference in USG abdomen and menstrual cycle after 1-year treatment with Siddha medicines and Yoga. This case demonstrates that PCOS can be well managed with Siddha medicines integrated with Yoga.
  80 3 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Anti-Proliferative Activity of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) from a Siddha Medicinal Plant Enicostema axillare (Poir. ex Lam.) A.Raynal
V Miranalini, P Rajalakshmi, V Vadivel
July-December 2019, 2(2):36-41
INTRODUCTION: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted more attention of the researchers due to its distinctive chemical, physical and biological properties. In the present study, a Siddha medicinal plant Enicostema axillare (Family: Gentianaceae, Tamil: Vellarugu) was used to synthesize AgNPs through green route and their anti-proliferative activity was studied in cell line model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Green synthesized AgNPs using Enicostema axillare extract was characterized using UV, TEM, XRD and zeta potential techniques and also evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity in DLA cell line model. RESULTS: Among different solvents, methanol extract of Enicostema axillare was contained high total phenolic concentration (5412 mg GAE / L), and hence it was used to synthesize AgNPs. Formation of AgNPs was confirmed by UV absorption (443 nm) while TEM results indicated the spherical shape and diameter of AgNPs (10.93 - 13.95 nm). Results of zeta potential (-13.5 mV) showed the stability of hydrated AgNPs and the XRD and FT-IR data indicated the crystalline nature and presence of extract as capping agent, respectively. Green synthesized AgNPs showed remarkable anti-proliferative activity against the DLA cell line (74 %, IC-50 value 0.053 mg/ml). CONCLUSION: The Siddha plant Enicostema axillare could be explored to synthesis AgNPs by green route with remarkable anti-proliferative property.
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CASE REPORTS
Siddha Management of Kamalai – A Case Report
M Harihara Mahadevan, C Eswaran, KP Vanmathi, R Thilagavathi
July-December 2018, 1(1):54-58
Kamalai which is also called as Manjal noi in Siddha literature is a disease caused by increase of Azhal kutram in body. The case study deals with a pediatric patient presented with the symptoms of Kamalai and the En vagai thervu diagnosis of Siddha system of medicine also confirmed the diagnosis arrived by considering the clinical history of patient. Siddha drugs that are indicated for Azhal kutra noigal and specific medicine for Kamalai were prescribed to the patient. The patient got relieved from the symptoms of Kamalai on third day of treatment. The parameters of Liver Function Test also came to normal range on 14th day of treatment with drastic reduction in serum bilirubin level values on 3rd day of the treatment. As Kamalai is a comparable with acute viral hepatitis, Siddha treatment for Kamalai may be followed for the treatment of acute viral hepatitis after evaluating the efficiency of treatment with large scale clinical studies.
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SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
In Vitro Investigation of Antidiabetic Potential of Traditional Herb Passiflora edulis Sims
R Varsha Rani, K Shyam Madhavan, K Mangathayaru
July-December 2019, 2(2):54-57
Background: Diabetes Mellitus, currently a Global epidemic affects the quality of the lives of millions. Beside prescribed medication, several herbal drugs are popularly taken as supplements and there is a lot of scientific attention on folklore herbs used in diabetes. The current study is focused at evaluating the antidiabetic potential of Passiflora edulis, through an in vitro investigation, a potential herb in the diabetic management. Methods: Hydro alcoholic extract of powdered leaves of P. edulis were subjected to phytochemical screening and assessed for glucose uptake in vitro in yeast cell model. Results: At a concentration of 5mg/ml, there has been 83.4% uptake of glucose by yeast cells mediated by the extract. There has been 46.5% glucose uptake by yeast cells at lowest tested concentration of 1mg/ml. Yeast cell represents an excellent in vitro system for assessing the trans membrane uptake of glucose, they also mimic glucose utilization by peripheral tissues in vivo. Conclusion: The results have demonstrated significant enhancement of glucose uptake by yeast cells brought about by the extract of leaves of P. edulis. The findings being significant, the leaves of P. edulis may be developed as a highly potent health supplement in diabetic management.
  76 5 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
A Comprehensive Review on Medicinally Important Gymnosperms Mentioned in Siddha
P Radha, C Udhayavani, R Nagaraj
July-December 2018, 1(1):23-32
Introduction: Gymnosperms – a group of Spermatophytes are well renowned for their characteristic therapeutically roles in various medicinal systems such as modern medicine, folk and traditional medicinal systems. The present review describes the medicinal importance of gymnosperms used in Siddha System of medicine. Method: Literature survey has been done to document the application of gymnosperm species along with ethno-medicinal uses. The medicinal plants are enumerated with their local name, Siddha name and therapeutically actions mentioned in Siddha literatures along with ethno-medicinal properties for various diseases. Results: Gymnosperms have been performed a role in various medicinal systems such as modern medicine, folk and traditional medicinal systems. It has been found that, four species reviewed in the present papers are medicinally useful in the ailments such as asthma, cough, sore throat, diarrhoea, hypertension, rheumatism, fever, aphrodisiac, ulcer, diuretic, diabetes, kidney stone problems, bronchitis etc. Conclusion: The present study provides a comprehensive review on the medicinally important Gymnosperms with their therapeutic role in traditional system of Indian medicine. This may be helpful to know and conserve these plants for future perspectives.
  70 6 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Study on Acute Toxicity of Anti-Flatulent Siddha Formulation Kattu Maantha Kudineer in Swiss Albino Rats
MK Tamil Muhil
July-December 2019, 2(2):58-61
Background: The Siddha system of Medicine deals with various branches, one among the branch was Kuzhanthai Maruthuvam which deals with numerous pediatric diseases. Functional dyspepsia is a major health problem in all over the world among childrens. Objective: To study the acute toxicity of Siddha formulation kattumaanthakudineer in swiss albino rats. Methods: The kattumaanthakudineer is prepared and administrated at the dosage of 2000 mg/kg. Healthy swiss albino rats (3 females) of 200-240 g of body weight were selected and allowed for an acclimation period of 7 days. The animals were fasted before the treatment. All animals were treated with 2000 mg/kg signs of toxicity were observed for every one hour for first 24 hours and every day for about 14 days from the beginning of the study. The test substance was administered orally. Results: Single dose oral administration of kattumaanthakudineer at 2000mg/kg caused no adverse toxic effects. The animals did not show any changes in body respiration, urination, defecation, locomotion, salivation, body weight. Conclusion: The acute oral LD50 of test substance in swiss albino rats was observed to be greater than 2000mg/kg. This indicates the safety of kattumaanthakudineer through oral administration.
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EDITORIAL
Multi-disciplinary Research to Promote Siddha System of Medicine as Evidence Based Medicine
K Kanakavalli
July-December 2019, 2(2):1-2
  68 6 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An Exploratory Pilot Study on the Traditional Siddha Anthropometric Diagnostic and Screening Method Manikkadai Nool Measurement
Subramanian Saravanan, S Muraleedharan Nair
July-December 2018, 1(1):41-47
Background: The traditional Tamil Siddha medical text ‘Agasthiyar Sūdamanikkayaru Sūtram’ exclusively discusses Manikkadai Nūl (wrist-thread) measurement as a continuous variable ranging from 4 to 10 fb with an interval of 0.25 fb between each value i.e. 4, 4.25, 4.5, 4.75 etc. and enumerates the corresponding disease conditions associated with each value, as a desk reference for physicians. The current study was aimed to study the distribution pattern of Manikkadai Nūl (MN) measurement of students studying in an undergraduate college in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala and to analyse the data statistically. Manikkadai Nūl measurement is the circumference of forearm which is measured four finger breadth above the wrist. Methods: The study group included 166 females and 37 males aged 18-28 years. MN measurement of the participants was recorded. The mean and standard deviation were calculated. The distribution of the MN measurement was generated. Correlation between age and MN measurement was assessed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The sex difference with respect to MN measurement was assessed by t test. Results: The analysis shows positively skewed (theoretically symmetrical) distribution of MN measurement. The mean was 9.28, mode was 9, and the standard deviation was 0.83; MN measurement has no correlation with age and gender. As per the traditional Tamil Siddha text, only 8 out of the 203 participants are in their perfect health state. Conclusion: The distribution of the MN measurement was positively skewed (N=203) which could be considered as theoretically symmetrical distribution and if the number of study participants were increased, a perfect symmetrical distribution might be obtained. A thorough study on MN measurement and its correlation with body mass index, waist hip ratio, waist circumference and associated disease conditions will be helpful to develop a non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool for the lifestyle disorders referred in the classical Siddha text.
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Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Decoction of Allium cepa on Peptic Ulcer
Vijitha Paheerathan, R Piratheep Kumar
July-December 2018, 1(1):48-53
Introduction: The plant Allium cepa belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae which is popularly known as Irravengayam in Tamil. A perennial herb usually grown as an annual, 15-50 cm high with ovoid, red, subterranean bulbs. Peptic ulcer disease is a problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion. It usually occurs in the stomach and proximal duodenum; less commonly, it occurs in the lower oesophagus, the distal duodenum, or the jejunum. Signs and symptoms of Gunmam are comparable with the signs and symptoms of peptic ulcer in modern aspect. Gunmam is a disease which is characterized by indigestion, burning sensation in stomach, vomiting, decreased body strength, emaciation and stress. This study is an observational open labeled clinical trial to determine the effectiveness of bulb decoction of Allium cepa in the management of peptic ulcer. It also determines the association of peptic ulcer with hereditary, food habits, physical activities and mental disturbances. Methods: In this research questionnaire was implemented to collect the data. Ten (10) patients were selected clinically during the period of Sep 2016- Nov 2016 at the Rural Ayurvedic hospital, Kopalapuram. Patients were treated with 40ml of root decoction. Evaluation visit were made at base line and once in a week for 06 weeks. Effect of treatment was evaluated on changes in the sign and symptoms. Clinical parameters were analyzed by scores as difference between the visits on first day of treatment and after treatment. Results: Statistically highly significant improvement (p<0.001) in heart burn, epigastric pain, indigestion, nausea and vomiting and eructation were observed in each visit while mean reduction also highly marked. Conclusion: On the basis of results and findings, this study shows remarkable reduction of degree of symptoms with highly significant improvement of the selected symptoms such as heart burn, epigastric pain, indigestion, nausea & vomiting and eructation.
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CASE REPORTS
Effect of siddha medicine and Yogam in Swasakasam (Bronchial Asthma) patient - A case report
P Mirunaleni, K Elavarasan, R Manickavasagam, K Kanakavalli
Jan-Jun 2019, 2(3):14-17
The prevalence of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis is on the rise in India. In the Siddha text, Pothu maruthuvam, bronchial asthma is referred to Swasakasam. Among the different modalities of treatment, poly-herbal combinations, yoga practice and pranayamam are said to be well-accepted, safe and effective in treating Swasakasam. 39-year-old old male, IT professional was referred to Siddha wing at Integrated AYUSH OPD, All India Institute of Ayurveda, for the management of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. He was treated with Siddha medicines, Yogam and pranayamam practice for 3 months. He showed significant improvement in control of asthma, reduction in taking salbutamol puff, anti - histamine drugs and his quality of life improved.
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