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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-10

Comparative macro-microscopic studies of three wild Solanum species (S. melongena L., S. incanum L. and S. virginianum L.)

1 Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, Presidency College (Autonomous), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Siddha Central Research Institute (CCRS, Ministry of Ayush, Govt. of India), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Sunil Kumar Koppala Narayana
Department of Pharmacognosy, Siddha Central Research Institute (CCRS, Ministry of Ayush, Govt. of India), Chennai - 600 106, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jrsm.jrsm_9_23

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Background: The traditional medicinal system comprises the usage of innumerable plant species for the treatment of various ailments. Solanum, a potent medicinal genus, finds vast description in the various traditional medicinal systems world over. The effectiveness of a herbal drug relies on the usage of correct botanical sources. In this scenario of growing importance of traditional medicines and excessive loss of habitats of various medicinal plants, the procurement of genuine herbals is a challenging issue. Many related species of Solanum distributed over the world find their usage in many medicinal preparations, but the authenticity of the herbals is not promised. The identification and standardization of crude herbal drugs can be assured by the definite morphological and anatomical characterization. Materials and Methods: Macroscopical characters of all three samples collected from Attur Chat village in Salem district were observed and recorded using Nikon Digital camera D5600 and ZEISS Discovery V8 stereo microscope. The samples were preserved in formalin acetic acid, free hand sectioning was done to reveal the anatomy, and photographs were taken using Axiolab 5 trinocular microscope fitted with Axiocam 208 camera. Results: Macro-microscopic features of three important Solanum species viz S. melongena L., S. incanum L., and S. virginianum L. were characterized by morphology and anatomy studies. The stem was terete (S. incanum), flattened (S. melongena), and cylindrical (S. virginianum) in the species. The leaves were large and elliptic in S. melongena, simple ovate in S. incanum, and ovate and brittle in S. virginianum. Anatomically in the stem of S. virginianum, glandular trichomes were observed, which were absent in the other two species. In the case of leaves, the trichome type and density were varying in the three species, and trichomes were present only in the midrib of S. melongena. Variations observed in petiole and fruits were also recorded. Conclusion: The macro-microscopic characterization carried out will be worthwhile in judging the authenticity of the plants and differentiating these species from one another.

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