|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 22-26
Quality control of herbal distillates through organoleptic grading indices
Soman Vinayak1, Eugene Wilson1, Munuswamy Sampangiramulu Shreedevi1, Sathiyarajeswaran Parameswaran1, Shyamala Rajkumar2, Shinnaraj Selvarajan2, Kanakavalli Kadalkarai2
1 Siddha Central Research Institute (SCRI), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Central Council for Research in Siddha (CCRS), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Submission||21-Jan-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||18-Oct-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||18-Apr-2023|
Dr. Soman Vinayak
Department of Pharmacy, Siddha Central Research Institute (SCRI), Anna Government Hospital Campus, Arumbakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Theeneer or medicinal herbal distillates are simple and effective formulations used in Siddha medicine, which are promising both as a health promoter and as a medicine for a wide range of clinical manifestations. Traditional quality parameters (TQPs) pertaining to Siddha herbal distillates are much more reliable for pre-assessment of its therapeutic potential. The organoleptic characterization such as Niram (color), manam (odor), suvai (taste), and Theeneer ennai (volatile matter) are the factors of TQP, which govern the therapeutic outcome of a distillate.
Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop organoleptic grading standards of classical herbal distillate Oma Theeneer (OT) and to assess the batch variations of OT using grading.
Materials and Methods: A provisional reference standard sample of herbal distillate OT was prepared from three identical batches each in traditional and glass still with the same operational settings. It was graded based on clarity, color, odor, taste, and volatile tinge to specify the best possible quality made. The grading was assessed with batches of OT study samples prepared as per the standard operating procedures (SOPs) of textual, traditional, and pharmaceutical references to compare its quality.
Results and Conclusion: With organoleptic grading, the high-quality distillate was identified from the study samples. OT study sample prepared in traditional apparatus was having superior quality and hence a scoring based on the observation and the maximum ideal score was taken as 15. Those prepared as per the textual approach had a high indexing score of 14/15, followed by traditional (12/15), and pharmaceutical SOP (9/15). Appropriate quality scoring as per the organoleptic grading helps to improve batch processing and standardization of the formula. Standardization may include organoleptic grading for maximum outcome.
Keywords: Oma Theeneer, organoleptic grading, quality control of herbal distillates, traditional quality parameters
|How to cite this article:|
Vinayak S, Wilson E, Shreedevi MS, Parameswaran S, Rajkumar S, Selvarajan S, Kadalkarai K. Quality control of herbal distillates through organoleptic grading indices. J Res Siddha Med 2022;5:22-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Vinayak S, Wilson E, Shreedevi MS, Parameswaran S, Rajkumar S, Selvarajan S, Kadalkarai K. Quality control of herbal distillates through organoleptic grading indices. J Res Siddha Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jun 3];5:22-6. Available from: http://www.jrsm.in/text.asp?2022/5/1/22/374333
| Introduction|| |
Theeneer or medicinal herbal distillates are simple and effective formulations used in Siddha medicine, which are promising both as a health promoter and as a medicine for a wide range of disease conditions. Traditional quality parameters (TQPs) pertaining to Siddha herbal distillates are much more reliable for the preassessment of its therapeutic potential. The organoleptic characterization such as Niram (color), manam (odor), suvai (taste), and Theeneer ennai (volatile matter) pertaining to the herbal distillate are the key factors for its quality., In Siddha pharmaceutical practices, currently there are no indices to assess and grade the quality of herbal distillates. This study is purposed to develop an organoleptic index based on the traditional organoleptic characteristics of the finished product. A classical Siddha herbal distillate, Oma Theeneer (OT) was selected to develop the index. As there is significant variation in preparations of OT, three batch variants based on textual reference, traditional experience, and pharmaceutical SOP were furthermore prepared. The batches were assessed for quality variations based on the prepared organoleptic grading indices.
| Materials and methods|| |
Omam (Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague) was procured from two sources: one sample was obtained from an organic certified raw drug merchant in Puducherry, which was used for preparing the reference standard of oma theeneer (OT) and for preparing the batches as per the textual and traditional SOP. Another sample of Omam was collected from a local raw drug market in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, which was used for preparing OT with reference to pharmaceutical SOP.
Apparatus used for the study
Traditional still with a condenser and collecting funnel were used to prepare three samples of OT (OT 1–3). Glass still with a round-bottomed glass vessel of capacity 1 L attached with a condenser unit was used to prepare the OT samples (OT 4–6). Glass beakers of suitable size were used to collect the distillate [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].
|Figure 1: Traditional distillation apparatus used for OT sample preparation (OT1-6)|
Click here to view
|Figure 2: Glass distillation apparatus used for OT sample preparation (OT1-6)|
Click here to view
Preparation of provisional reference standard sample of Oma Theeneer
A provisional reference standard sample of herbal distillate OT was prepared from six identical batches under the same operational settings. The prescribed quantity of Omam was cleaned and coarsely powdered, then it was divided into three parts. Each part was added with 30 parts of potable water, mixed well, and kept for two days. The mixture was distilled in a traditional distillation apparatus to collect the distillate. The procedure was repeated with the other two samples. The same procedure was repeated with the glass still to collect three samples.
All six samples were separately evaluated for their organoleptic characteristics. On the basis of a comparison of the organoleptic characters of six samples, the best-quality distillate was identified and graded based on clarity, color, odor, taste, and volatile tinge., The organoleptic characters and the yield were given the grading as shown in [Figure 3]. The organoleptic grading was developed based on the quality of the drug sample. The scoring from 1 to 3 was given for each of the four characters and for the total yield. The least possible quality score is said to be 1 and the maximum as 3. The scoring annotations were referred to and adapted from the available literature based on organoleptic grading of functional foods and the International Organization for Standardization, ISO 2211:1973.,
|Figure 3: Organoleptic scoring and quality grading of Oma Theeneer reference standard|
Click here to view
Preparation of study samples of OT for quality grading
Other three batches of OT were prepared as per the Standard Operating Procedures of textual, traditional, and pharmaceutical view,,[Table 1].
|Table 1: Details of the preparation of Oma Theeneer under three different settings|
Click here to view
- Take cleaned Omam
- Tie a bundle
- Soaked with four parts of potable water for 2 days
- Distill on the third day
- Preserve in a bottle
- Take good quality Omam (1 part)
- Clean and purify
- Coarsely powder it
- Add 30 parts of potable water
- Stir it well
- The mouth part of the vessel is covered with a clean cloth and tied
- Allow it to soak for 2 days
- Each day stirring is done
- On the third day morning, the mixture is transferred to the distillation apparatus
- A suitable upper still is installed over it
- The junction is sealed with mud plaster and allowed to dry
- Distillation is initiated in low flame then to mid flame
- Collect distillate up to more than half of the added water volume (60%)
- Mix thoroughly for uniform mixing of the volatile content
- The distillate collected is stored in dark-colored thick bottles with air-tight cork
- Take pharmaceutical gradient Omam (1 part)
- Clean and purify
- Add 30 parts of potable water
- Allow it to soak for a day
- Distill on the second day for maximum extraction of (70%–80%)
- Mix thoroughly to uniformly mix the volatile content
- Preserved in vessels or containers with air-tight lids
| Results and discussion|| |
The quality of an herbal distillate depends on so many factors, primarily being the nature of apparatus or vessels used in its manufacture. Comparative observation of distillates made in the glass still and traditional still reported considerable quality differences in organoleptic characters supported through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical studies. Traditional apparatus (clay made) was found to be ideal for the manufacture of distillates. This study was directed in the laboratory facility by using a distillation glass apparatus and traditional still. Glass still has several limitations such as inadequate heat enduring capacity and uneven boiling of the contents; the quality gradient will be lesser when equated with traditional still. Here three samples were prepared under each traditional and glass setting.
The grading was assessed with three batches of OT samples prepared in traditional (OT1-3) and glass still (OT4-6). The three batches prepared in traditional still were superior in quality, and a provisional standard was selected from it to develop the organoleptic scoring as illustrated in [Figure 3].
The ideal scoring of 15 is then taken as the reference standard grading to compare the distillate samples prepared as per the SOPs of textual, traditional, and pharmaceutical references to compare its quality. For observing the clarity, color, odor, taste, and presence of a volatile tinge, the distillate from the first phase (up to 50 mL) was collected in a round-bottomed glass container. The distillate is observed for any turbidity, presence of raw material, and clarity preferably at outdoors having a good light source. The sample is tested for its taste and odor and finally, the total yield obtained is measured. The different approach in the manufacture of OT was considered for comparison. The preparation by following the descriptions purely mentioned in the Siddha literature was taken as textual SOP. Traditional SOP describes the expertise practices of Siddha Vaidhyars in the making of OT and pharmaceutical SOP is the existing manufacturing practices.
With organoleptic grading, the high-quality distillate was identified from different batches. Those prepared as per the textual approach had the highest index score of each character, namely color, clarity, aroma, odor, taste, and volatile tinge followed by traditional and pharmaceutical approaches [Table 2].
The ratio of raw drugs to the water used in distillation as per the textual approach is 1:4 as compared with the 1:30 ratio commented on in both traditional and pharmaceutical approaches. This may be the basis for its intense organoleptic quality. The superiority is also dependent on the finest quality raw drug used (essential oil retained) and also the pre-preparations of the raw drug before distillation like coarsely powdering the raw drug and soaking it in water for a period before distillation. Commonly, in pharmaceutical practice, market samples of Omam in which essential oil has been extracted (second-grade quality) will be used for drug manufacture. The practice of coarsely powdering or soaking is also lacking in the pharmaceutical approach. These factors influenced the quality as compared to textual and traditional SOP which uses essential oil-retained seeds for distillation with proper implementation of procedures before distillation.
The final yield obtained by following traditional SOP was 60%–70%, pharmaceutical SOP 70%–80%, and textual SOP 25%. The reduced yield obtained by following textual SOP is due to the usage of insufficient medium for distillation. For commercial purposes by considering costing, the yield obtained from each batch is a crucial factor, which was specified as per the experience of collecting more than 60% of the total volume of water used in distillation. So, the quantity of water to the raw drug ratio will be high in traditional and pharmaceutical SOP as compared to the textual SOP. The distillate will be diluted if the collection is more than 70% that result in a net reduction of quality. This is also a reason for the reduced pharmaceutical quality of herbal distillates.
Limitations of the study
- Few market samples of OT were to be evaluated using the grading system to compare the pharmaceutical batch variations. Batch-to-batch variations will be carried out in future studies.
- The grading system is particular to the single formulation of OT, which has been standardized. Separate standardization and grading are essential for each herbal distillate formulation.
| Conclusion|| |
A combined approach of the textual, traditional, and pharmaceutical SOPs may guarantee good yield, quality, and efficacy of OT. Organoleptic scoring may help us to observe and compare the quality of herbal distillates in batch variations. Each scoring index is particular only to a single formulation. The quality assurance division particular to Siddha pharmaceutical may introduce the catalog for herbal distillate quality scoring to monitor quality variations associated with each product. Appropriate quality scoring as per the organoleptic grading helps to improve batch processing and standardization of the formula. Standardization may include Organoleptic grading for maximum outcome.
The authors acknowledge the technical support provided by the Department of Pharmacy, Siddha Central Research Institute for preparation of study samples.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Ramachandran SP. Yacobe Vaidhya Chinthamani -700. 1st ed. Chennai: Thamarai Noolakam; 1996. p. 40, 236–239, 266–269, 317, 325.
Vinayak S, Nithin V, Gayatri R, Priya BK. Siva Neer Soothiram (Part I & II), The Science of Distillation in Siddha Medicine. 1st ed. Kerala: Department of Traditional Indian Medicine (D-TIM) Publications, Board of Research Analysis in Intuitive Neuroscience (BRAINS); 2019.
Lohar DR. Protocol for testing Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani medicines. 1st ed. Ghaziabad: Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicines, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 2007. p. 17.
Anonymous. Formulary of Siddha Medicines. 1st ed. Chennai: The Indian Medical Practitioners Co Operative Pharmacy and Stores Ltd; 2000. p. 302.
Kuppusami M, Uthamarayan . Siddha vaidhya Thirattu. 2nd ed. Chennai: Directorate of Indian Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2006. p. 297-9.
Anonymous. Siddha Formulary of India (Part 2. Tamil Version). 1st ed. New Delhi: Ministry of Health & Family Welfare; 2001. p. 173-82.
Vinayak S, Gayatri R, Sivakumar S, Aravind D, Sivaraman D, Anil Sundaresan. et al
. Preparation of Siddha herbal distillate from traditional still and glass still; A comparative study. World J Pharm Res 2018; 7:688-98.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2]