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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 37-41

Concept of Pranayamam in Naadi, habitat and seasonal changes - A review

Siddha Central Research Unit, Central Council for Research in Siddha, New Delhi 110001, India

Date of Web Publication11-Oct-2021

Correspondence Address:
M Subhathra
Siddha Central Research Unit, Central Council for Research in Siddha, New Delhi 110001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Yogam plays an important role in Siddha System of Medicine. Siddhar Thirumoolar explains Ashtanga Yogam in Thirumandiram which consist of various aspects in human life. Pranayamam is the fourth Angamor limb of Ashtanga Yoga. Pranayamam means breath control. The aim of practicing Pranayamam is to stimulate, regulate and harmonize vital energy of the body. In the human body, this universal pranan has been observed to move in specific ways in specific regions in the body, regulating and controlling physical and mental function. While, doing pranayamam it purifies our human body. The Vayu cannot enter the Nadis if they are full of impurities. Therefore, first, they should be purified and then Pranayamam (vasi) should be practiced. If you practice pranayamam regularly our naadi and ulthathuvangal will be maintained properly.

Keywords: Breath exercise, Siddha, Vasi, Saram

How to cite this article:
Subhathra M, Vikesh B, Manickavasagam R. Concept of Pranayamam in Naadi, habitat and seasonal changes - A review. J Res Siddha Med 2019;2, Suppl S1:37-41

How to cite this URL:
Subhathra M, Vikesh B, Manickavasagam R. Concept of Pranayamam in Naadi, habitat and seasonal changes - A review. J Res Siddha Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2022 Jan 24];2, Suppl S1:37-41. Available from: http://www.jrsm.com/text.asp?2019/2/3/37/328050

  1. Introduction Top

Siddhars say that an intelligent control over our breathing will prolong life by increasing our stamina. The practice of right way of breathing in Siddhar’s science of longevity is known as practice of “Vasi (Pranayama)”.[1] Vasi in Tamil means “breathing” (Vayutharanai). If we repeat the word ‘Vasi’ several times it will resound as ‘Siva’. Regulation of breathing .The Siddha system says the human body both the physical and the subtle is made up of 72,000 veins and nerves and seven vital nerve centers (chakras) along the route of the spinal cord, the three important regions being sun, moon, and fire, the ten vital airs (prana) and ten vital nerves (nadis). Out of the ten vital nerves (Nadis) the first three namely Idakalai, Pingalai, and Suzhumunai play an important role in the technique and prolongation of life.[2]

  2. Materials and Methods Top

  • Research design: literaturereview
  • Reviewed from selected authenticate texts available in books and e-books fromreference.
  • E-book searched from Science Direct, Google scholar, Elsevier,etc.
  • Key words used for searching pranayamam, vasi, saram.

  3. Results Top

3.1 Pranayamam

The normal life span of a man should be 120 years. A man’s normal act of breathing as prescribed by Siddha science is at the rateof 360 times per nazhigai (Two hours = Iynthunazhigai) and this comes to 21,600 breaths in a day. Every act of breathing takes place at a length of space of 12 inches in the nostril and during its operation, the energy utilized by the body is up to an extent of eight inches only and the remaining four inches is being wasted. It is clear therefore that out of 21,600 total breaths of a human body in a day, the body is utilizing only 14,400 breaths and the balances of 7,200 breaths go as unutilized. If we make use of those 7,200 breaths, we can live without pinni, muppu, sakkadu.[3]

“Nalondrukuirubathuorayirathuarunoorunal amanaswasasam than ezhuthirikumkolandripathinalariyithunano orukuvithamoolatharathulodungumpalond riezhayirathieranooruswasampazhinirpayi ndhudumaenarigapinnaielondriedhanaiuts athithaleppozhuthumpalaraiirukalamae”

- Noi Nadal

Thiratupagam 1

Respiration should be rhythmical. According to Thirumoolar by harmonizing the three movements. Inhalation (pooragam) through left nostril 16 mathirais (units), retention (kumbagam) of the inhaled air to the extent of 64 mathirais and exhalation (resagam) through right nostril 32 mathirais.[4]

3.2 Types ofPranayama

According to Thirumoolar there are three steps in pranayamam:
Table 1: Lists of Pranayamam Steps

Click here to view

  1. NaturalBreathing
  2. Basic Abdominalbreathing
  3. Thoracicbreathing
  4. Clavicularbreathing
  5. Yogicbreathing
  6. Deep breathing withratios
  7. Fastbreathing
  8. InterruptedBreathing
  9. Alternate NostrilBreathing
  10. CoolingBreath
  11. VictoriousBreath
  12. Humming BeeBreath
  13. Bellow’sBreath
  14. InterruptedBreathing
  15. Alternate NostrilBreathing
  16. CoolingBreath
  17. VictoriousBreath
  18. Humming BeeBreath
  19. Bellow’sBreath
  20. Right NostrilBreathing [5]

3.3 Saram

Saram is the flow of energy which regulates the 64 kalaigal in the human body. Saram flow through the pathways of 3 naadis, they are idakalai, pingalai and suzhumunai. Idakalai is the cold energy, pingalai is the hot energy, and these two energies are kept in harmony by the suzhumunai. It may be defined as the action of prananvayu. Inhalation in one nostril and exhalation occurs in another nostril. The flow of oxygen into the left nostril is called Idakalai and through the right nostril is called pingalai. Saram is the movement of oxygen (Pranavayu). It flows into the nostrils by inhaling and comes out by exhalation.[2]

The inhalation and exhalation don’t take place simultaneously in both nostrils. In each nostril, the respiration takes place only for 2hours.

On Monday, Wednesday and Friday, the respiration takes place through the left nostril for two hours, beginning at 4AM every morning. Consequently, for every two hours, the respiration is changed from one nostril to another. According to avvaikuraletc.,


Tuesday, Saturday and Sunday, Respiration starts from the Right nostril and at every two hours respiration changes from one nostril to another nostril. InThursday of waxing moon, through the left nostril and during the waning moon, through the right nostril, respiration starts at 4A.M. It the early morning and respiration changes from one nostril to other in every 2hours (IynthuIynthunazhigaimarum). The respiration passes through via Idakalai or Pingalai enter all the five boothas. Combination of three kalais, vayus and three nadis, the function and the proportion of the three pulses (nadi) are determined.[6]

3.4 Relationship between kalaigal and vayukkal

The northwest / sunshine for the wind inside the right nostril; the spatial / lunar eclipse of the wind inside the left nostril. Two nostrils say that the winds are windy when winds up. These breathing have unique properties and functions.[7]

3.4.1 Pingalai

  1. The body’s heat will riseslightly.
  2. Strengthen the body andincrease strength.
  3. The brain and the body are breathless.
  4. The temperatures are low andthe speed ishigh.
Table 2: Correlation between Kalaigal, Vaayu and Naadi

Click here to view

3.4.2 Idakalai

  1. The body’s temperature issomewhat diminished and cooler.
  2. Tranquility decreases and mildnessin the mind andbody.
  3. The brain starts to thinkquietly.
  4. Decreases speed andmoderate mood.
Table 3: Special Months for Naadi

Click here to view

3.5 Concepts Regarding Habitat and Season

Siddha science which visualizes man as a microcosm, believes that planetary changes and natural rhythms that result in six seasons/year (perumpozhuthu) and six periods/day (sirupozhuthu) also result in corresponding physiological changes in other creatures living in macrocosm, viz., the Universe.[8]

“AndathilullathaePindam, PindathilullathaeAndam…”

- Satta Muni Gnanam

This verse means that the environment is same within and outside our body which indicates that the body physiology must be tuned according to the habitat and the prevailing season as an adaptive and preventive measure for one’s health.[9]

Accordingly, Siddhars designed the habitat (Nilam) and seasons (Pozhuthu).[10]
Table 4: Correlation between Habitat, Seasons and Periods/Days

Click here to view

  4. Discussion Top

In order to lead a healthy life, we need to go through the Inspiration and Expiration process. The regulation can be done by practicing Pranayamam. Pranayamam means control of breath; pranan means breath or vital energy in the body. Pranan is the energy responsible for life or life force, and ayama means control.[11] If it is employed scientifically, oxygen will enter through the six vital regions of the body (Atharam) and strengthen them. It controls the mind without oscillation, brightens the intellect and makes the body immortal. Finally, it gives the status of the Almighty. Further, it is said there won’t be any illness if the respiration is done with the proper ratio between the three naadi (that governing soul and body) namely, Vali, Azhal and Aiyam. If you do pranayama in right way, according to Kalai, vaayu and habitat and seasonal changes combine to form the Healthy and Longevity of the life. It’s one of the best preventive measures to live without illness and make it remain as youth and good mind.[12] By the function and combination of three kalais, vayus and three nadis, the function and the proportion of the three pulses (nadi) are determined.

  5. Conclusion Top

Pranan, the life force means mental force, are the two fundamental factors. Every object in the universe, right from the smallest atom to the largest star is composed of energy. [13] Pranan is one of the yogic practices for spiritual growth as well as therapeutic applications. By regular practice of pranayama one can be free from deadly diseases. Pranayama should be practice with caution and care. While doing pranayama which regulates idakalai, pingalai. Both are the constituents for the formation of Vali, Azhal, Aiyyam (Naadi). Usually disease may be changes in Sthula Sukkuma Sariranagal, seven physical constituents, Vali, Azhal, Ayyam (mukkutrangal) those are all change from originality (i.e.) called disease. So, we must do, pranayama properly. It will never fail to ensure supreme vitality for the body and eternal peace of the mind.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors express their sincere thanks to Prof. Dr. Kanakavalli, DG-CCRS, Chennai for her support and motivation.


  References Top

Sinha AN. Assessment of effect of pranayama/ alternative nostril breathing on para-sympathetic nervous system in young adults. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7(5).  Back to cited text no. 1
Shanmugavelu M. Harrison’s principles of Internal medicine in “Principles of diagnosis in Siddha”. McGraw Hill: USA; 2005.p:63,83.  Back to cited text no. 2
Dhuirasan G. Harrison’s principles of Internal medicine in Noiilla-Neri. (Edn. 1). Indian Medicine and Homeopathy Department: Chennai; 1951; p:55-60;184-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
Thyagarajan R. Siddha MaruthuvamSirappu (Edn.1). Department of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy: Chennai; 1985; p:28-31.  Back to cited text no. 4
www.healthandyoga.com. (accessed on 29 May 2019).  Back to cited text no. 5
Shanmugavelu M. Harrison’s principles of Internal medicine in “Siddha MaruthuvaNoinadalNoimudal Nadal”. McGraw Hill: USA; 2005.p:49.  Back to cited text no. 6
Telles S, Naveen KV. Voluntary breath regulation in yoga: its relevance and physiological effects. Biofeedback 2008;36(2):70-3.  Back to cited text no. 7
Trakroo M, Bhavanani AB, Pal GK, Udupa K, Krishnamurthy N. A comparative study of the effects of asan, pranayama and asan-pranayama training on neurological and neuromuscular functions of Pondicherry police trainees. Int J Yoga 2013;6(2):96.  Back to cited text no. 8
Uthamarayan CS. Harrison’s principles of Internal medicine in ThohakiramaAaraichiyum siddha maaruthuvavaralaruam. (Ed 4). Sarathy Offset printers: Sivagasi; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 9
Uthamarayan CS. Harrison’s principles of Internal medicine in Sidhamaruthuvanga Surukkam. (Ed 4). Indian Medicine and Homeopathy Department: Sivakasi: 2006; p:114-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
Bhargava R. Autonomic responses to breath holding and its variations following pranayama. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1988;32(4):257-64.  Back to cited text no. 11
Jyotsana R. Effect of Yoga on Cardiovascular systems in subjects above 40 years. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2003;47(2):202-6.  Back to cited text no. 12
Jayasinghe SR. Yoga in cardiac health (a review). Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2004;11(5):369-75.  Back to cited text no. 13


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]


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1. Introduction
2. Materials and...
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