|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 30-35
Proximal and Phytochemical Analysis of Wild Jack Fruit Seeds (Artocarpus hirsutus Lam.), Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Microbial Properties and Formulation of Food Products
K Krishnapriya, K Kanjana
Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, PSG College of Arts & Science, Civil Aerodrome post, Peelamedu, Coimbatore-641014, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Web Publication||4-Oct-2021|
Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, PSG College of Arts & Science, Civil Aerodrome post, Peelamedu, Coimbatore-641014, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
BACKGROUND: The present study aims at evaluating the proximal principles, phytochemicals, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial activity of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. (Wild jackfruit) seeds thereafter incorporating the seed powder in food. Negligible studies have been conducted to identify the health benefits of A. hirsutus seeds. Hence, an attempt has been made to explore the active principles in the A. hirsutes seeds. METHODS: The seed powder was extracted using three different solvent extracts viz., methanol, di-ethyl ether and water. The extracts were analysed for phytochemicals (qualitative), proximate principles, anti-bacterial (Salmonella typhi, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebseilla pneumonia) and anti-fungal (Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger) properties using agar well diffusion method and anti-diabetic properties using α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor activity. Food formulation was done by incorporating the seed powder in traditional foods followed by organoleptic evaluation. RESULTS: The study revealed the presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, sterols and quinine in different solvents and contains greater amounts of carbohydrates and proteins. The study shows the highest anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichoderma viridae. The seeds contain potent anti-diabetic activity. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that Artocarpus hirsutus seeds are nutritionally enriched and prevents food borne pathogens. The seeds reveal excellent anti-diabetic properties. The seeds are not consumed frequently due to the lack of information on its health benefits. Therefore, the seeds can be incorporated in traditional foods to improve the nutritional quality and enhance the importance of traditional medicines and foods.
Keywords: Artocarpus hirsutus, Phytochemical, Anti-microbial, Anti-diabetic, Traditional
|How to cite this article:|
Krishnapriya K, Kanjana K. Proximal and Phytochemical Analysis of Wild Jack Fruit Seeds (Artocarpus hirsutus Lam.), Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Microbial Properties and Formulation of Food Products. J Res Siddha Med 2019;2:30-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Krishnapriya K, Kanjana K. Proximal and Phytochemical Analysis of Wild Jack Fruit Seeds (Artocarpus hirsutus Lam.), Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Microbial Properties and Formulation of Food Products. J Res Siddha Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2021 Dec 3];2:30-5. Available from: http://www.jrsm.com/text.asp?2019/2/2/30/327521
| 1. Introduction|| |
Artocarpus is a genus of approximately 60 trees and shrubs of South-east Asian and Pacific origin, belonging to the Moraceae family. The name Artocarpus is derived from the Greek word artos meaning “bread” andkarpos meaning “fruit”. All Artocarpus species are laticiferous trees or shrubs that are composed of leaves, twigs and stems capable of producing a milky sap.Artocarpus hirsutus is a widely acknowledged as a rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, stilbenes, triterpenoids, and xanthones. The ripe fruit of Artocarpus hirsutus is eaten after removing the spiny outer skin. The structure of the fruit is similar to that of the much larger jackfruit. The seeds are also edible, usually fried as a snack. Its bark cures diabetes, tapeworm infection, anaemia, malarial fever, asthma, dermatitis, diarrhoea, pimples and ulcers. It has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, as a remedy for many kinds of diseases. Artocarpus hirsutus have added a great deal in the field of phytochemistry with regard to their availability of complex phytochemical components, antibacterial activity, anti-helminthic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral. Phytochemical screening has been done using the extracts of Artocarpus hirsutus leaf, bark and fruit. Negligible number of studies has been done to identify the health benefits of A. hirsutus seeds. Hence, an attempt has been made to identify and explore the active principles present in the A. hirsutus seeds. Analysis of proximate active principles that is used in development of food products should be brought to the limelight of nutritionists who are on the pathway of improving the community health.
| 2. Materials and Methods|| |
The wild jack fruit seeds were identified and collected from farmers in the district of Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. The seeds were separated from the fruit and shade dried. Dried seeds were pulverised into fine powdered form and an approximate amount was used to prepare extracts with three different analytical grade solvents of varying polarity such as methanol, di-ethyl ether and water.
2.1 Phytochemical Screening
The phytochemical analysis was performed using all three extracts. Each extract was subjected to the assays to identify the presence of Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Tannins, Sterols and Quinine.
2.2 Nutrient Analysis
The water extract of the seeds was analysed for the nutrients as water is the medium of cooking using standard procedures suggested by AOAC (2005). The water extract of the seed powder was quantitatively analysed for carbohydrate, protein, fibre, calcium, sodium and potassium.
2.3 Anti-microbial activity
Anti-bacterial activity of Artocarpus hirsutus seed extracts were tested against the following bacterial strains: Salmonella typhi, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pnuemoniae. Fungal strains of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viridae were used for anti-fungal screening of the seed extracts. All the stock cultures were collected from the Centre for Bioscience and Nano science Research Centre, Coimbatore. 24 hr. old pure cultures were prepared for use each time.
2.4 Bioassay for bacterial strains
The well-diffusion assay was employed in this study. 50 μL of bacterial and fungal cultures aged 18-24 hrs were used. After sterilising the hands with ethanol, the sterilised nutrient agar is poured into 6 petri-plates (4 for bacterial screening and 2 for fungal screening). The plates are allowed to solidify. The solidified agar medium plates are first marked (organism name) under the plate. The organism is then spread in each plate uniformly using a cotton swab. After this, holes were made using 5 mm cork borer and each hole was filled with 25 μL of extracts. The inoculated agar plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hrs. the zones of inhibition were then recorded in diameter. Two discs were used as standard, Cefotaxime 30 SDO40 – 1CT (bacterial screening) and Ampicillin (fungal screening).
2.5 Anti-diabetic screening
Anti-diabetic activity of the extract was tested for α-amylase inhibitory and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
2.6 Food formulation
In order to formulate food products, the Artocarpus hirsutus seeds were roasted to remove the outer coat which gives a bitter taste. After cooling the seeds after roasting, it was finely powdered. In food formulation, food products were made by combining the seed powder in specific proportions in a formulation. Incorporation of the seeds powder into South Indian traditional food products like Idly, Chapatti and Steamed cakes was performed. Three categories of seed powder and flour mixtures were formulated. The three categories included three different proportions of seed powder and flour in the ratio of 10:90 (category A), 20:80 (category B) and 30:70 respectively (category C).
The food products developed were subjected to organoleptic evaluation using 9-point hedonic scale covering the aspects of appearance, texture, flavour, aroma, taste and overall acceptability.
2.7 Analysis of data
The data collected were processed and analysed statistically. Sensory evaluation variables were analysed through paired T test using SPSS.
| 3. Results and Discussion|| |
3.1 Phytochemical analysis
The Artocarpus hirsutus seeds are rich in phenolic compounds. The present study revealed the presence of ‘alkaloids and tannins’ in aqueous extract, ‘alkaloids, tannins, sterols and quinine’ in methanol extract, and ‘alkaloids and sterols’ in di-ethyl ether extract. The results obtained from the qualitative phytochemical analysis are summarized in [Table 1].
|Table 1: Qualitative (phytochemical) analysis of Artocarpus hirsutus seeds|
Click here to view
3.2 Anti-microbial Screening
In the present study, agar well-diffusion method was performed for both antibacterial and anti-fungal screening. With this method, the zone of inhibition for E.coli was seen to be highest in aqueous extract with a value of 9 mm (Standard anti-biotic disc – 11 mm), Staphylococcus aureus in methanol extract with a value of 15 mm (Standard antibiotic disc – 7 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae in aqueous extract with a value of 10 mm (Standard anti-biotic disc – 14 mm) and Salmonella typhi in aqueous extract with a value of 14 mm (Standard anti-biotic disc – 7 mm). For anti-fungal screening, the zone of inhibition for Trichoderma viridae in methanol extract was seen to be highest with a measurement of 8 mm. The anti-bacterial screening results are summarized in [Table 4]. [Figure 1] shows the different plates and their zone of inhibition.
|Figure 1: Zone of Inhibition of Artocarpus hirsutus seeds powder against bacterial and fungal strains|
Click here to view
3.3 Anti-diabetic Screening
The results of the anti-diabetic screening using both the assays showed very good anti-diabetic property of the seeds. (Annexure 2) are summarized in [Table 5].
3.4 Food formulation
Sensory evaluation was performed among 35 subjects with different categories of the food products. Statistical analysis was performed using paired sample‘t’ test among the different responses. The results revealed that the category C among all the foods (chapati, idly and steam cakes) was statistically found to be more acceptable by the panel. Therefore, it can be concluded that higher concentration of the seed powder incorporated into the food products had better sensory perception than the other concentrations.
| 4. Conclusion|| |
In the current study, phytochemical analysis reveals the present of phenolic compounds which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. Nutrient analysis shows that the seed powder is an excellent source of carbohydrate and protein and it also has good anti-bacterial action against food borne pathogens. The study also reveals excellent anti-diabetic properties of the seeds. The study can be further extended by conducting shelf-life and cytotoxicity studies. Due to the anti-diabetic properties, it can also be subjected to further supplementation studies.
| References|| |
Monish M, Sowmiya R, Ragunathan, Jesteena J. Extraction of Bioactive compounds from Cassia auriculate pods and leaves and its medicinal uses. J of phytochemistry 2017; 6: 425-34.
Abedin MS, Nuruddin MM, AhmedKU, Hossain A. Nutritive compositions of locally available jackfruit seeds (Artocarpusheterophyllus)
. International J of Biosciences 2002;40:1-7.
Ahmedullah M, Nayar MP. Endemic plants of the Indian region. American J of Clinical Nutrition 1986;71(6):13-21.
A review of its phyto-chemistry and pharmacology. J of Pharma Search 2014; 9(1)7-12.
ArungET,Shimizu K, Kondo R. Artocarpus
plants as a potential source of skin whitening agents Natural Product Communications 2012;6(9):1397-402.
Jayasri MA, Radha A, Mathew TL. Alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Costus pictus
Don in the management of Diabetes. J of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology 2009;3(1):91-4
Asha DS, Ben CP. Least concerned bark and stipules of Artocarpus
species (Moraceae) - an effective antibacterial agent. International Science Community Association 2014; 3(1):25-9.
Azeem AK, Rasheed A, Dilip C, Junise V, Rani S. Diuretic activity of the fruits of Artocarpus hirsutus
Lam. J of Current Science 2011;1(1):16-9.
Chowdhury AR, Bhattacharya A, Chattopadhyay P. Study on functional properties of raw and blended Jackfruit seed flour (a non-conventional source) for food application. Indian J of Natural Products and Resources 2012;3(2):347-53.
Chun-Nan Lin, Chai-Ming Lu and Pao-Lin Huang. Flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus
. J Phyt chem. 2005;39(6):1447-51.
Dibinital D, SathishSekar D, Senthil Kumar KL. Pharmacognostica Studies on the Bark of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam
. Hygeia J for Drugs and Medicines 2010;2(1):22-7.
Downes FP, Ito K. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods American Public Health Association. 4th
ed. WashingtonDC; 2008:7-83.
Elango R, BallRO,Pencharz PB. Amino acid requirements in humans: with a special emphasis on the metabolic availability of amino acids. J Biochem. 2009;37(2):19-27.
Enos TA, Britanto DW, Yohana AH. Anti-cancerous properties of di-ethyl ether extract of wood from Sukun (Artocarpus altilis)
in Human Breast Cancer (T46D) cells Tropical. J of Pharmaceutical Research, 2009; 8(4):317-24.
Fang et al., Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus
. J Agrc Food Chem 2008; 56(2):4463-8.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]