• Users Online: 76
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 16-29

Herbal Remedies from Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Plants Conserved at Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (CCRS), Mettur Dam, Salem District, Tamil Nadu


Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (Central Council for Research in Siddha, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India), Mettur Dam, Salem district – 636401, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication4-Oct-2021

Correspondence Address:
M Padma Sorna Subramanian
Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (Central Council for Research in Siddha, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India), Mettur Dam, Salem district – 636401, Tamil Nadu
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Introduction: This paper reports on aquatic/semi-aquatic plants from the Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (SMPG),Mettur Dam, Salem district of Tamil Nadu, which are used to cure various diseases in Siddha system of medicine. Materials and Methods: In the present review, information on Siddha formulations of the plants and medicinal properties along with their taxonomy, habit and habitat were presented by citing authentic publications. Results: Thirty-three aquatic/semi-aquatic plant species used in herbal remedies are being presented in this paper along with their description, medicinal uses as single drug or in combination. At SMPG, aquatic, semi-aquatic and marshy plants are being maintained at model herbal gardens I and II, petaloid pond, poly green house and arboretum. Among these aquatic species, some plants are sold in the market and directly used by the AYUSH practitioners due to their medicinal values, viz., Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC (Ponnankanni), Bacopa monnieri Penn. (Brahmi), Centella asiatica(L.)Urban (Vallarai), Eclipta prostrate L. (Vellaikarisalai), Phyla nodiflora Greene. (Poduthalai), Sphagneticola calendulacea (L.) Pruski (Manjalkarisalai), Spilanthes acmella DC. (Palvalipoondu) etc. Some of the species were explored enormously and their formulated herbal products are available in the global market. Conclusion: Aquatic plants have been widely used in traditional medicine with a long Indian history. They are reputed for treating a number of ailments. Thus far, many studies are significant in aquatic plants but limited to the level of clinical uses, conservation and cultivation.

Keywords: Aquatic, Semi-aquatic, Siddha, Medicinal Plants, SMPG.


How to cite this article:
Manokari M, Sorna Subramanian M P. Herbal Remedies from Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Plants Conserved at Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (CCRS), Mettur Dam, Salem District, Tamil Nadu. J Res Siddha Med 2019;2:16-29

How to cite this URL:
Manokari M, Sorna Subramanian M P. Herbal Remedies from Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Plants Conserved at Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (CCRS), Mettur Dam, Salem District, Tamil Nadu. J Res Siddha Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2021 Dec 3];2:16-29. Available from: http://www.jrsm.com/text.asp?2019/2/2/16/327519




  1. Introduction Top


1.1 Aquatic flora in Herbal medicine

Aquatic/semi aquatic plants unquestionably play momentous ecological roles as the dominant primary producer component of swallow water ecosystems. They are also referred to as hydrophytes or macrophytes and offers great economic importance to mankind[1]. Aquatic flora directly serves as the major source of energy for greater diversity of biota besides conserving the aquatic habitat. In India, however, aquatic plants have been extensively used for a diversity of purposes since historical times, and are used (often cultivated) even today particularly for food, fodder, fibre and medicine[2]. Though the aquatic ecosystem is rich repositories of various plant species, not much work has been undertaken to enumerate their medicinal uses. The economic importance, ethno-medicinal uses, edible aspects of aquatic, semi aquatic and marshy flora were discussed by some researchers[3],[4],[5],[6]. Aquatic plants have many unique biological features and are potential for their agricultural, horticultural, nutraceutical, ornamental and medicinal importance[7]. Many plant species under aquatic origin were reported to have valuable folklore utilization in traditional medicine and used in phytoremediation[8],[9].

1.2 Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden

The Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (SMPG), Mettur Dam (11° 52’ N, 77° 50’ E), Salem dt, Tamil Nadu functions under Central Council for Research in Siddha, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India. In SMPG, aquatic and semi-aquatic plants are maintained and cultivated at herbal gardens, Poly-greenhouse and in arboretum. Particularly, Model herbal garden II was established with a petaloid pond with aquatic and marshy plants.

The present work reviews the taxonomy, medicinal uses, plant parts explored in Siddha system of medicine with Siddha formulations of selected aquatic and semi aquatic plants maintained at Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden, Mettur dam, Salem district, Tamil Nadu with the help of authentic publications.


  2. Material and Methods Top


The plants were recorded and maintained year-round at the garden. In the present review, information on Siddha formulations of the plants and medicinal properties along with their taxonomy, habit and habitat state were presented by citing authentic publications.


  3. Results and Discussion Top


Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden covered a number of different species like aquatic, semi aquatic or marshy plants. The present study highlights the medicinal potential of some selected aquatic and semi aquatic plant species maintained/cultivated at Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden, Mettur Dam, Salem District, Tamil Nadu. A total of 33 plant species belonging to 21 families distributed in 29genera have been documented. The medicinal uses of the selected aquatic/semi aquatic plants were enumerated alphabetically by binomial name of species with its respective family, vernacular names (Siddha), Siddha formulations in which, some of the listed plants are used as a single / compound drug also given in table [Table 1].
Table 1: Aquatic/semi aquatic plants and their medicinal uses

Click here to view


Among the 33 species selected for study, 20 species were dicotyledons from 15 families, 12 species were monocotyledons from 6 families and one species represents fern (Pteridophyte) [Figure 1]. Some selected aquatic species were presented in [Figure 2]. In dicots, the family Asteraceae was dominated and shows higher number[6] of species. Monocots in aquatic habitats have been emphasized by a number of workers[10],[11]and dominance of dicots over the monocots in aquatic habitats have been highlighted by Saini et al.[12] and Niroula and Singh.[13]
Figure 1: Group wise distribution ofaquatic/semi aquatic plants at SMPG

Click here to view
Figure 2: Selected aquatic/ semi aquatic plants cultivated at SMPG

Click here to view


Drugs of natural origin play a significant role in the public health care system of any nation. Indian Materia Medica includes describes about 2000 drugs of natural origin, among which 400 drugs are mineral and animal origin and the remaining drugs are explored in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems[14],[15]. The World Health Organization (1980) has also recommended the evaluation of the effectiveness of plants in conditions where there is lack of safe synthetic drugs. Aquatic/ semi aquatic species are also the sources for the medicinal significance[6]. Since, the propagation of those species is possible by controlled environments, further exploration is advisable.


  4. Conclusion Top


From phytodiversity point of view, many aquatic and semi aquatic plants still remain unexplored. It is concluded that the quantitative and qualitative floristic survey, constant monitoring and protection of aquatic and semi-aquatic bodies are the need of the hour in order to save the aquatic flora and to maintain the wild progenitors as well as to explore the richness of aquatic flora in the field of drug discovery.


  5. Acknowledgement Top


We, the authors would like to express our sincere gratitude to the Director General, CCRS for providing necessary facilities to carry out the study.



 
  References Top

1.
Bornette F, Puijalon S. Response of aquatic plants to abiotic factors: a review. AquatSci 2011; 73: 1-14.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Anonymous. Wealth of India (Raw Materials) Vol.1-11 CSIR Publication. New Delhi, 1976.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Maya S, Menon SV, Nair SG. Economic importance of river vegetation of Kerala – A case study. J Econ Taxon Bot 2003; 27: 796- 803.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Jain A, Roshnibala S, Kanjilal PB, Singh PB, Singh HB. Aquatic/semi-aquatic plants used in herbal remedies in the wetlands of Manipur, Northeastern India. Indian J Trad Knowled 2007; 6: 346-51.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Swapna MM. Prakashkumar R, Anoop KP, Manju CN, Rajith NP. A review on the medicinal and edible aspects of aquatic and wetland plants of India. J Med Plants Res 2011; 5: 7163-76.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Pareek A, Kumar A. Aquatic plants of Rajasthan, India with medicinal value. J Ethnobio Trad Med 2013; 119: 434-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Krishnasamy J, Arumugam R, Ariyan S. Ornamental aquatic and semi-aquatic plants in Coimbatore district. Biolife 2014; 2: 557-71.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Dhir B, Sharmila P, Parthasaradhi P. Potential of Aquatic Macrophytes for Removing Contaminants from the Environment. Critical Rev Env Sci Tech 2009; 39: 754-81.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Saravanakumar K, Prabhakaran J. Aquatic floral populations in Veeranamlake command area, Tamil Nadu, India. Int J Currbiotecn 2013; 1: 18-26.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Burlakoti C, Karmacharya SB. Quantitative analysis of macrophytes of Beeshazar Tal, Chitwan, Nepal. Him J Sci 2004; 2: 37-41.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Manhas RK, Gautam MK, Kumar D. Plant diversity of fresh water swamp of Doon Valley, India. J Amer Sci 2009, 5: 1-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Saini DC, Singh SK, Raj K. Biodiversity of aquatic and semi aquatic plants of Uttar Pradesh (with special reference to Eastern Uttar Pradesh). 2010; 479.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Niroula B, Singh KLB. Contribution to aquatic macrophytes of Biratnagar and adjoining areas, Eastern Nepal. Ecoprint 2010; 17: 23-4.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Abdullah I H, Khan H, Khan L, Khan MI, Hassan S, Khan MA. In vitro biological activity of decoction of Joshanda. Pak J Pharma Sci 2014; 27: 239-43.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Singh A, Navneet. A review on medicinal plants and herbs of Uttrakhand (India): its traditional, ethanomedicinal and antimicrobial potential. Nature Sci 2016; 14: 90-107.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Gamble JS. Flora of the presidency of Madras. Bot. Surv. India: Calcutta; 1976.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Mathew KM. The flora of Tamil Nadu Carnatic. Tiruchirapalli; 1983.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Yoganarasimhan SN. Medicinal Plants of India. Tamil Nadu; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Nadkarni KM. Indian Materia Medica. Popular Prakashan: Bombay; 1976.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
The Siddha Pharmacopoeia of India. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH); 2008.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
The Siddha Pharmacopoeia of India. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH); 2011.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
The Siddha Formulary of India (SFI). Dept. AYUSH, Govt. of India: New Delhi; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Joshi A, Karnawat BS, Narayan JP, Sharma V. Alocacia macrorrhiza: A decorative but dangerous plant. Int J Sci Study 2015; 3: 221-3.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Debnath B, Debnath A, Paul C. Diversity of invasive alien weeds in the major roadside areas of Tripura and their effect and uses. J Chem Biol PhySci 2015; 5: 3091-102.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Kumar RK, Mishra SS. Use of Agnikuarni (Ammannia baccifera L.) in ringworm by some of the villagers of Birmaharajpurblock (Sonepur Dt.). J Pharma Sci Inn 2012; 1: 37-8.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Hussain MS, Fareed S, Ali M. Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum) Heine: Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Asian J Trad Med 2010; 5: 122-31.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Rai K, Gupta N, Dharamdasani L, Nair P, Bodhankar P. Bacopa monnieri: A wonder drug changing fortune of people. Int J Appl Sci Biotech 2017; 5: 127-32.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Hegde PL, Rao HA, Rao PN. A review on insuling plant (Costus igneusNak). Phcog Rev 2014; 8: 67-72.  Back to cited text no. 28
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
29.
Pal DK, Nimse SB. Little knowm uses of common aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata (Linn. f.) Royle. Nat Prod Rad 2006; 5: 108-11.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Pal DK, Padhiri AK, Otta M, Khatun S, Sanigrahi S, Mandal M. Studies on antibacterial activity of Hydrilla verticillata, 16th Annual Conference of the PSI, Paschim Medinipur, 2004; 77.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants-An Illustrated Dictionary. Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd: New Delhi; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Panda A, Mishra MK. Ethnomedicinal survey of some wetland plants of South Orissa and their conservation. Indian J Trad Med Knowled 2011; 10: 296-303.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Soni P, Singh L. Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. – A valuable culinary and remedial fern in Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India. Int J Life Sci Pharm Res 2012; 2: L99-104.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Sheikh SA. Ethno-medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). J Med Plant Studies 2014; 2:42-6.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Fathima SN, Vasudevamurthy S, Rajkumar N. A review on phytoextracts with antiepileptic property. J Pharm Sci Res 2015; 7: 994-1003.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Sumithira G, Kavya V, Ashma A, Kavinkumar MC. A review of ethnobotanical and phytopharmacology of Ottelia alismoides(L.) Pers. Int J Res Pharmacol Pharmatherap 2017; 6: 302-11.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Adkar PP, Bhaskar VH. Pandanus odoratissimus (Kewda): A Review on Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Nutritional Aspects. AdvPharmacolSci 2014; http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/120895.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Raja S, Ramya I. A comprehensive review on Polygonumglabrum. Int J Phytomed 2016; 8: 457-67.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Mudaliar MKS. Siddha Gunapadam, Beshen Singh &Mahandra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun., 2008; 228-229.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Galani VJ, Patel BG, Rana DG. Sphaeranthus indicusLinn.: A phytopharmacological review. Int J Ayur Res 2010; 1: 247-53.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Koul S, Pandurangan A, Khosa R. Wedelia chinensis (Asteraceae) – An overview. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012; 2: S1169-75.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Balekar N, Katkam GN, Nakpheng T, Jehtae K, Srichana T. Evaluation of the wound healing potential of Wedelia trilobata (L.) leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 2012; 141: 817-24.  Back to cited text no. 42
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
1. Introduction
2. Material and ...
3. Results and D...
4. Conclusion
5. Acknowledgement
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed86    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded5    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]