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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 16-29

Herbal Remedies from Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Plants Conserved at Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (CCRS), Mettur Dam, Salem District, Tamil Nadu

Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (Central Council for Research in Siddha, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India), Mettur Dam, Salem district – 636401, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication4-Oct-2021

Correspondence Address:
M Padma Sorna Subramanian
Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (Central Council for Research in Siddha, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India), Mettur Dam, Salem district – 636401, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Introduction: This paper reports on aquatic/semi-aquatic plants from the Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (SMPG),Mettur Dam, Salem district of Tamil Nadu, which are used to cure various diseases in Siddha system of medicine. Materials and Methods: In the present review, information on Siddha formulations of the plants and medicinal properties along with their taxonomy, habit and habitat were presented by citing authentic publications. Results: Thirty-three aquatic/semi-aquatic plant species used in herbal remedies are being presented in this paper along with their description, medicinal uses as single drug or in combination. At SMPG, aquatic, semi-aquatic and marshy plants are being maintained at model herbal gardens I and II, petaloid pond, poly green house and arboretum. Among these aquatic species, some plants are sold in the market and directly used by the AYUSH practitioners due to their medicinal values, viz., Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC (Ponnankanni), Bacopa monnieri Penn. (Brahmi), Centella asiatica(L.)Urban (Vallarai), Eclipta prostrate L. (Vellaikarisalai), Phyla nodiflora Greene. (Poduthalai), Sphagneticola calendulacea (L.) Pruski (Manjalkarisalai), Spilanthes acmella DC. (Palvalipoondu) etc. Some of the species were explored enormously and their formulated herbal products are available in the global market. Conclusion: Aquatic plants have been widely used in traditional medicine with a long Indian history. They are reputed for treating a number of ailments. Thus far, many studies are significant in aquatic plants but limited to the level of clinical uses, conservation and cultivation.

Keywords: Aquatic, Semi-aquatic, Siddha, Medicinal Plants, SMPG.

How to cite this article:
Manokari M, Sorna Subramanian M P. Herbal Remedies from Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Plants Conserved at Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (CCRS), Mettur Dam, Salem District, Tamil Nadu. J Res Siddha Med 2019;2:16-29

How to cite this URL:
Manokari M, Sorna Subramanian M P. Herbal Remedies from Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Plants Conserved at Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (CCRS), Mettur Dam, Salem District, Tamil Nadu. J Res Siddha Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2021 Dec 3];2:16-29. Available from: http://www.jrsm.com/text.asp?2019/2/2/16/327519

  1. Introduction Top

1.1 Aquatic flora in Herbal medicine

Aquatic/semi aquatic plants unquestionably play momentous ecological roles as the dominant primary producer component of swallow water ecosystems. They are also referred to as hydrophytes or macrophytes and offers great economic importance to mankind[1]. Aquatic flora directly serves as the major source of energy for greater diversity of biota besides conserving the aquatic habitat. In India, however, aquatic plants have been extensively used for a diversity of purposes since historical times, and are used (often cultivated) even today particularly for food, fodder, fibre and medicine[2]. Though the aquatic ecosystem is rich repositories of various plant species, not much work has been undertaken to enumerate their medicinal uses. The economic importance, ethno-medicinal uses, edible aspects of aquatic, semi aquatic and marshy flora were discussed by some researchers[3],[4],[5],[6]. Aquatic plants have many unique biological features and are potential for their agricultural, horticultural, nutraceutical, ornamental and medicinal importance[7]. Many plant species under aquatic origin were reported to have valuable folklore utilization in traditional medicine and used in phytoremediation[8],[9].

1.2 Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden

The Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden (SMPG), Mettur Dam (11° 52’ N, 77° 50’ E), Salem dt, Tamil Nadu functions under Central Council for Research in Siddha, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India. In SMPG, aquatic and semi-aquatic plants are maintained and cultivated at herbal gardens, Poly-greenhouse and in arboretum. Particularly, Model herbal garden II was established with a petaloid pond with aquatic and marshy plants.

The present work reviews the taxonomy, medicinal uses, plant parts explored in Siddha system of medicine with Siddha formulations of selected aquatic and semi aquatic plants maintained at Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden, Mettur dam, Salem district, Tamil Nadu with the help of authentic publications.

  2. Material and Methods Top

The plants were recorded and maintained year-round at the garden. In the present review, information on Siddha formulations of the plants and medicinal properties along with their taxonomy, habit and habitat state were presented by citing authentic publications.

  3. Results and Discussion Top

Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden covered a number of different species like aquatic, semi aquatic or marshy plants. The present study highlights the medicinal potential of some selected aquatic and semi aquatic plant species maintained/cultivated at Siddha Medicinal Plants Garden, Mettur Dam, Salem District, Tamil Nadu. A total of 33 plant species belonging to 21 families distributed in 29genera have been documented. The medicinal uses of the selected aquatic/semi aquatic plants were enumerated alphabetically by binomial name of species with its respective family, vernacular names (Siddha), Siddha formulations in which, some of the listed plants are used as a single / compound drug also given in table [Table 1].
Table 1: Aquatic/semi aquatic plants and their medicinal uses

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Among the 33 species selected for study, 20 species were dicotyledons from 15 families, 12 species were monocotyledons from 6 families and one species represents fern (Pteridophyte) [Figure 1]. Some selected aquatic species were presented in [Figure 2]. In dicots, the family Asteraceae was dominated and shows higher number[6] of species. Monocots in aquatic habitats have been emphasized by a number of workers[10],[11]and dominance of dicots over the monocots in aquatic habitats have been highlighted by Saini et al.[12] and Niroula and Singh.[13]
Figure 1: Group wise distribution ofaquatic/semi aquatic plants at SMPG

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Figure 2: Selected aquatic/ semi aquatic plants cultivated at SMPG

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Drugs of natural origin play a significant role in the public health care system of any nation. Indian Materia Medica includes describes about 2000 drugs of natural origin, among which 400 drugs are mineral and animal origin and the remaining drugs are explored in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems[14],[15]. The World Health Organization (1980) has also recommended the evaluation of the effectiveness of plants in conditions where there is lack of safe synthetic drugs. Aquatic/ semi aquatic species are also the sources for the medicinal significance[6]. Since, the propagation of those species is possible by controlled environments, further exploration is advisable.

  4. Conclusion Top

From phytodiversity point of view, many aquatic and semi aquatic plants still remain unexplored. It is concluded that the quantitative and qualitative floristic survey, constant monitoring and protection of aquatic and semi-aquatic bodies are the need of the hour in order to save the aquatic flora and to maintain the wild progenitors as well as to explore the richness of aquatic flora in the field of drug discovery.

  5. Acknowledgement Top

We, the authors would like to express our sincere gratitude to the Director General, CCRS for providing necessary facilities to carry out the study.

  References Top

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  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1]


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